© 2015 Stetz, Verkhivker. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Hsp70 and Hsp110 chaperones play an important role in regulating cellular processes that involve protein folding and stabilization, which are essential for the integrity of signaling networks. Although many aspects of allosteric regulatorymechanisms in Hsp70 and Hsp110 chaperones have been extensively studied and significantly advanced in recent experimental studies, the atomistic picture of signal propagation and energetics of dynamics-based communication still remain unresolved. In this work, we have combinedmolecular dynamics simulations and protein stability analysis of the chaperone structures with the network modeling of residue interaction networks to characterize molecular determinants of allostericmechanisms. We have shown that allosteric mechanisms of Hsp70 and Hsp110 chaperonesmay be primarily determined by nucleotide-induced redistribution of local conformational ensembles in the inter-domain regions and the substrate binding domain. Conformational dynamics and energetics of the peptide substrate binding with the Hsp70 structures has been analyzed using free energy calculations, revealing allosteric hotspots that control negative cooperativity between regulatory sites. The results have indicated that cooperative interactions may promote a population-shift mechanism in Hsp70, in which functional residues are organized in a broad and robust allosteric network that can link the nucleotide-binding site and the substratebinding regions. A smaller allosteric network in Hsp110 structures may elicit an entropy-driven allostery that occurs in the absence of global structural changes.We have found that global mediating residues with high network centrality may be organized in stable local communities that are indispensable for structural stability and efficient allosteric communications. The network- centric analysis of allosteric interactions has also established that centrality of functional residues could correlate with their sensitivity to mutations across diverse chaperone functions. This study reconciles a wide spectrum of structural and functional experiments by demonstrating how integration of molecular simulations and network-centric modeling may explain thermodynamic and mechanistic aspects of allosteric regulation in chaperones.
Stetz, G., & Verkhivker, G. M. (2015). Dancing through life: Molecular dynamics simulations and network-centric modeling of allosteric mechanisms in Hsp70 and Hsp110 chaperone proteins. PLoS ONE, 10(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143752