Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis: An update focused on clinical grading system

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Introduction: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a severe disease with a prevalence of < 1 case out of 10,000 in Europe, which occurs mainly in pediatric age and is characterized by a severe and often bilateral chronic inflammation of the ocular surface. The diagnosis is generally confirmed by the finding at the ocular examination of conjunctival hyperemia, papillary hypertrophy in the tarsal conjunctiva, giant papillae, papillae in the limbus region. Objective: Aim of this review is to provide an updated overview on the disease focused on clinical grading system, searching papers published in the last decade on VKC in scientific databases. Results: Currently there are no standardized criteria for diagnosis of VKC and there is no uniformity to define disease severity, which makes difficult to diagnose and treat the disease. Conclusions: Given the wide overlap of the symptoms of VKC with the allergic conjunctivitis, criteria of probable, possible or improbable diagnosis are needed, providing pediatricians with parameters useful for deciding whether to drive the patient to the ophthalmologist for diagnostic confirmation.




Zicari, A. M., Capata, G., Nebbioso, M., De Castro, G., Midulla, F., Leonardi, L., … Duse, M. (2019, May 21). Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis: An update focused on clinical grading system. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. BioMed Central Ltd.

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