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Evolutionary revolution: Implementing and disseminating IPM in Indonesia

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Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program in Indonesia was implemented after the government's rice self-sufficiency program failed, in most part, due to brown planthopper attack during the 1970s and 1980s. The IPM program implementation, modeled after some pioneer projects, introduced a new plant protection approach, mainly by involving farmers as early as possible in decision making, and reducing their use of pesticides. Since farmers had already been accustomed to chemical-based approach, at the beginning many farmers got confused, lost their confidence in extension sevices, and were hard to convince that the new approach is more feasible. The Indonesian experts then created a training-cum-extension program called Farmer Field School (FFS) on rice, and for about five years (1988-1993) trained about one million rice farmers. The training was later extended for other crops such as dry-land, vegetables and estates' commodities. A considerable number of farmers became familiar with IPM, but the change expected in their attitudes did not really emanate, especially when they were faced with problems other than plant insect pests and diseases. This chapter details the development of IPM program in Indonesia, the way of its dissemination and the result among Indonesian farmers. The complexity of the problems shows that technology transfer and program dissemination cannot depend on single approach. A multidisciplinary study should follow the development of a technology introducing program, and monitor it until it is assured that the program works as expected.




Martono, E. (2009). Evolutionary revolution: Implementing and disseminating IPM in Indonesia. In Integrated Pest Management (Vol. 2, pp. 359–381). Springer Netherlands.

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