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Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic RNA-protein aggregates formed in response to inhibition of translation initiation. SGs contribute to the stress response and are implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer and some forms of neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative diseases often involve chronic phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), with deletions of eIF2α kinases or treatment with eIF2α kinase inhibitors being protective in some animal models of disease. However, how and why the integrated stress response (ISR) is activated in different forms of neurodegeneration remains unclear. Because neuroinflammation is common to many neurodegenerative diseases, we hypothesized that inflammatory factors contribute to ISR activation in a cellnonautonomous manner. Using fluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting, we show here that the endogenously produced product of inflammation, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15- d-PGJ2), triggers eIF2α phosphorylation, thereby activating the ISR, repressing bulk translation, and triggering SG formation. Our findings define a mechanism by which inflammation activates the ISR in a cell-nonautonomous manner and suggest that inhibition of 15-d-PGJ2 production might be a useful therapeutic strategy in some neuroinflammatory contexts.
Tauber, D., & Parker, R. (2019). 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 promotes phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and activates the integrated stress response. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 294(16), 6344–6352. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.007138