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Background: Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (mHS) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism, which will give rise to failure of ketogenesis in liver during illness or fasting. It is a very rare disease with only a few patients reported worldwide, most of which had a good prognosis after proper therapies. Case presentation: We report a 9-month-old boy with mHS deficiency presenting with unusually severe and persistent acidosis after diarrhea and reduced oral food intake. The metabolic acidosis persisted even after supplementation with sugar and alkaline solution. Blood purification and assisted respiration alleviated symptoms, but a second onset induced by respiratory infection several days later led to multiple organ failure and death. Urine organic acid analysis during the acute episode revealed a complex pattern of ketogenic dicarboxylic and 3-hydroxydicarboxylic aciduria with prominent elevation of glutaric acid and adipic acid, which seem to be specific to mHS deficiency. Plasma acylcarnitine analysis revealed elevated 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine. This is the first report of elevated 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine in mHS deficiency. Whole exome sequencing revealed a novel compound heterozygous mutation in HMGCS2 (c.100C > T and c.1465delA). Conclusion: This severe case suggests the need for patients with mHS deficiency to avoid recurrent illness because it can induce severe metabolic crisis, possibly leading to death. Such patients may also require special treatment, such as blood purification. Urine organic acid profile during the acute episode may give a hint to the disease.
Liu, H., Miao, J. K., Yu, C. W., Wan, K. X., Zhang, J., Yuan, Z. J., … Zou, L. (2019). Severe clinical manifestation of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase deficiency associated with two novel mutations: A case report. BMC Pediatrics, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1747-5