Normalization and outlier removal in class center-based firefly algorithm for missing value imputation

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A missing value is one of the factors that often cause incomplete data in almost all studies, even those that are well-designed and controlled. It can also decrease a study’s statistical power or result in inaccurate estimations and conclusions. Hence, data normalization and missing value handling are considered the major problems in the data pre-processing stage, while classification algorithms are adopted to handle numerical features. In cases where the observed data contained outliers, the missing value estimated results are sometimes unreliable or even differ greatly from the true values. Therefore, this study aims to propose the combination of normalization and outlier removals before imputing missing values on the class center-based firefly algorithm method (ON + C3FA). Moreover, some standard imputation techniques like mean, a random value, regression, as well as multiple imputation, KNN imputation, and decision tree (DT)-based missing value imputation were utilized as a comparison of the proposed method. Experimental results on the sonar dataset showed normalization and outlier removals effect in the methods. According to the proposed method (ON + C3FA), AUC, accuracy, F1-Score, Precision, Recall, and AUC-PR had 0.972, 0.906, 0.906, 0.908, 0.906, 0.61 respectively. The result showed combining normalization and outlier removals in C3-FA (ON + C3FA) was an efficient technique for obtaining actual data in handling missing values, and it also outperformed the previous studies methods with r and RMSE values of 0.935 and 0.02. Meanwhile, the Dks value obtained from this technique was 0.04, which indicated that it could maintain the values or distribution accuracy.




Nugroho, H., Utama, N. P., & Surendro, K. (2021). Normalization and outlier removal in class center-based firefly algorithm for missing value imputation. Journal of Big Data, 8(1).

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