BACKGROUND: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays important roles in the development of neural crest and has been shown to suppress the development of various cancers. However, the expression and its potential biological roles of FOXD3 in high-grade gliomas (HGGs) remain unknown.<br /><br />METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression levels of FOXD3 were examined using real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting in 23 HGG and 13 normal brain samples, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to validate the expression FOXD3 protein in 184 HGG cases. The association between FOXD3 expression and the prognosis of HGG patients were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models. In addition, we further examined the effects of FOXD3 on the proliferation and serum starvation-induced apoptosis of glioma cells.<br /><br />RESULTS: In comparison to normal brain tissues, FOXD3 expression was significantly decreased in HGG tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Immunohistochemistry further validated the expression of FOXD3 in HGG tissues. Moreover, low FOXD3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in HGG patients. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promoted glioma cell proliferation and inhibited serum starvation-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibited glioma cell proliferation and promoted serum starvation-induced apoptosis.<br /><br />CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that FOXD3 might serve as an independent prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for HGGs, which warrant further investigation.
Du, W., Pang, C., Wang, D., Zhang, Q., Xue, Y., Jiao, H., … Wei, X. (2015). Decreased FOXD3 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with high-grade gliomas. PLoS ONE, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127976