Background: Accumulating evidence shows that the novel anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-35 can efficiently suppress effector T cell activity and alter the progression of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The two subunits of IL-35, EBI3 and p35, are strongly expressed in human advanced plaque, suggesting a potential role of IL-35 in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the plasma levels of IL-35 in patients with CAD have yet to be investigated. Methods: Plasma IL-35, IL-10, TGF-β1, IL-12 and IL-27 levels were measured using an ELISA in 43 stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients, 62 unstable angina pectoris (UAP) patients, 56 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and 47 chest pain syndrome patients as a control group. Results: The results showed that plasma IL-35 levels were significantly decreased in the SAP group (90.74±34.22 pg/ml), the UAP group (72.20±26.63 pg/ml), and the AMI group (50.21±24.69 pg/ml) compared with chest pain syndrome group (115.06±32.27 pg/ml). Similar results were also demonstrated with IL-10 and TGF-β1. Plasma IL-12 and IL-27 levels were significantly increased in the UAP group (349.72±85.22 pg/ml, 101.75±51.42 pg/ml, respectively) and the AMI group (318.05±86.82 pg/ml, 148.88±68.45 pg/ml, respectively) compared with chest pain syndrome group (138.68±34.37 pg/ml, 63.60±22.75 pg/ml, respectively) and the SAP group (153.84±53.86 pg/ml, 70.84±38.77 pg/ml, respectively). Furthermore, lower IL-35 levels were moderately positively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in CAD patients (R = 0.416, P<0.01), whereas higher IL-27 levels were weakly negatively correlated with LVEF in CAD patients(R = -0.205, P<0.01). Conclusions: The results of the present study show that circulating IL-35 is a potentially novel biomarker for coronary artery disease. Regulating the expression of IL-35 also provides a new possible target for the treatment of atherosclerosis and CAD. © 2012 Lin et al.
Lin, Y., Huang, Y., Lu, Z., Luo, C., shi, Y., Zeng, Q., … Ji, Q. (2012). Decreased Plasma IL-35 Levels Are Related to the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Coronary Artery Diseases. PLoS ONE, 7(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052490