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Effect of hypertension on outcomes of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A propensity score-matching analysis

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Abstract

Background: Previous studies have shown that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with underlying comorbidities can have worse outcomes. However, the effect of hypertension on outcomes of COVID-19 patients remains unclear. Research question: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of hypertension on the outcomes of patients with COVID-19 by using propensity score-matching (PSM) analysis. Study design and methods: Participants enrolled in this study were patients with COVID-19 who had been hospitalized at the Central Hospital of Wuhan, China. Chronic comorbidities and laboratory and radiological data were reviewed; patient outcomes and lengths of stay were obtained from discharge records. We used the Cox proportional-hazard model (CPHM) to analyze the effect of hypertension on these patients' outcomes and PSM analysis to further validate the abovementioned effect. Results: A total of 226 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, of whom 176 survived and 50 died. The proportion of patients with hypertension among non-survivors was higher than that among survivors (26.70% vs. 74.00%; P < 0.001). Results obtained via CPHM showed that hypertension could increase risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients (hazard ratio 3.317; 95% CI [1.709-6.440]; P < 0.001). Increased D-dimer levels and higher ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes (N/L) were also found to increase these patients' mortality risk. After matching on propensity score, we still came to similar conclusions. After we applied the same method in critically ill patients, we found that hypertension also increased risk of death in patients with severe COVID-19. Conclusion: Hypertension, increased D-dimer and the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte increased mortality in patients with COVID-19, with hypertension in particular.

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Yang, Q., Zhou, Y., Wang, X., Gao, S., Xiao, Y., Zhang, W., … Wang, Y. (2020). Effect of hypertension on outcomes of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A propensity score-matching analysis. Respiratory Research, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01435-8

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