Relapse is the major cause of death in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Measurable residual disease (MRD) detected by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) before and after HCT is a strong, independent risk factor for relapse. As next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly applied in AML MRD detection, it remains to be determined if NGS can improve prediction of post-HCT relapse. Herein, we investigated pre-HCT MRD detected by MFC and NGS in 59 adult patients with NPM1-mutated AML in morphologic remission; 45 of the 59 had post-HCT MRD determined by MFC and NGS around day 28. Before HCT, MRD detected by MFC was the most significant risk factor for relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 4.63; P <.001), whereas MRD detected only by NGS was not. After HCT, MRD detected by either MFC or NGS was significant risk factor for relapse (HR, 4.96, P =.004 and HR, 4.36, P =.002, respectively). Combining pre- and post-HCT MRD provided the best prediction for relapse (HR, 5.25; P <.001), with a sensitivity at 83%. We conclude that NGS testing of mutated NPM1 post-HCT improves the risk assessment for relapse, whereas pre-HCT MFC testing identifies a subset of high-risk patients in whom additional therapy should be tested.
Zhou, Y., Othus, M., Walter, R. B., Estey, E. H., Wu, D., & Wood, B. L. (2018). Deep NPM1 Sequencing Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Improves Risk Assessment in Adults with NPM1-Mutated AML. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 24(8), 1615–1620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.04.017