Liquefaction has recently been shown to occur in constitutive models at a critical value for the hardening modulus. Thus, the nearness of a soil element to liquefying at a given instant can be determined by finding the difference between its hardening modulus and its critical hardening modulus. The constitutive functions of the pore medium were described as follows: the evolution of the constitutive effective stress with imposed solid matrix deformation; the intrinsic mass densities with intrinsic pressure on all three phase; and the relative flow vector with intrinsic pressure for the water and air phase. The revelation has been applied herein to map the progression of static liquefaction in large scale boundary value problems under monotonic loading conditions. Simulations are presented to demonstrate how the proposed criterion can be applied to real-world situations. In addition, the influences of the loading rate and the mesh size on the liquefaction prediction are examined. The methodology proposed herein provides a powerful means of assessing liquefaction risk based on solid mechanical theory rather than empiricism. Results of the mesh size effect showed that the axial strains with the onset of the deformation band were different, if the mesh sizes were not the same even in the same sample.
Huang, L. C., Dai, B. B., & Cheng, Y. (2015). Deformation behaviour on the simulation of liquefaction in particle geomaterials. In Procedia Engineering (Vol. 102, pp. 1926–1934). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.01.333