Three methods of in situ deformation modulus (Em) measurements of rock masses have been described, analysed and compared. The plate jacking (PJT) test, where the deformations arc measured by extensometers in drill holes, gives generally the best results. A factor of 2.5 has been found between PJT and the Goodman jack test, and the plate loading test. From analyses of the results it has been pointed out that the damage from blasting of the test adit reduces the magnitude of test results with a factor between 2 and 4. The existing equations for indirect estimates of the rock mass deformation modulus from classification systems have been analysed and adjustment suggested. Taking into consideration the uncertainties connected to in situ deformation measurements caused by blast damage, test procedure and test method, a good characterization of the ground may give comparable, or possibly better Em values, using the RMi or the RMR system than the in situ tests. The RMR system gives, however, values that are too high for Em in massive rock. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palmström, A., & Singh, R. (2001). The deformation modulus of rock masses - Comparisons between in situ tests and indirect estimates. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 16(2), 115–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0886-7798(01)00038-4