Phosphate-based glasses have been examined in many studies as a potential biomaterial for bone repair because of its degradation properties, which can be controlled and allow the release of various elements to promote osteogenic tissue growth. However most of these experiments studied either tertiary or quaternary glass systems. This study investigated a qinternary system that included titanium dioxide for degradation rate control and zinc that is considered to have a role in bone formation. Zinc and titanium phosphate glass discs of different compositions were melt synthesized and samples of each composition was tested for different physical, chemical and biological characteristics via density measurement, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass loss, ion release, scanning electron microscopy, biocompatibility studies via live/dead assays at three time points (day 1, 4, and 7). The results showed that the glass was amorphous and that the all thermal variables decreased as zinc oxide amount raised, mass loss as well as ion release increased as zinc oxide increased, and the maximum rise was with ZnO15. The cellular studies showed that all the formulation showed similar cytocompatibility properties with MG63 except ZnO15, which displayed cytotoxic properties and this was confirmed also by the scanning electron microscope images. In conclusion, replacing calcium oxide with zinc oxide in proportion less than 10 % can have a positive effect on bone forming cells.
Qaysi, M. A., Petrie, A., Shah, R., & Knowles, J. C. (2016). Degradation of zinc containing phosphate-based glass as a material for orthopedic tissue engineering. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 27(10). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-016-5770-x