Deletion of LOX-1 protects against heart failure induced by doxorubicin

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Abstract

Oxidative stress is one of the major factors in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1) plays an important role to regulate cardiac remodeling and oxidative stress after ischemia-reperfusion. Therefore, we examined whether or not LOX-1 contributes to the pathogenesis of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of DOX into wild-type (WT) mice and LOX-1 knockout (KO) mice. Echocardiography and catheter-based hemodynamic assessment apparently revealed preserved left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening (FS) and cavity size of LOX-1 KO mice compared with those of WT mice after DOX administration. Less production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ss) was observed in LOX-1 KO mice than WT mice after DOX administration. Western blotting analysis also showed lower activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in LOX-1 KO mice treated with DOX than WT mice treated with DOX. In fact, NF-kappaB-dependent gene expressions of LOX-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were suppressed in LOX-1 KO mice treated with DOX compared with WT mice treated with DOX. Therefore, histological analyses showed attenuation of leukocyte infiltration and cardiac fibrosis in LOX-1 KO mice compared with WT mice. Meanwhile, extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK (ERK) inactivation and decreased expression of sarcomeric proteins and related transcription factor GATA-4 in WT mice treated with DOX administration were not seen in LOX-1 KO mice treated with DOX administration and WT and LOX-1 KO mice treated with vehicle. Decreased expression of sarcometric proteins resulted in smaller diameters of cardiomyocytes in WT mice than in LOX-1 KO mice after DOX treatment. The expression of LOX-1 in cardiomyocytes was much more abundant than that in endothelial cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells. Endothelial cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells treated with DOX showed no elevated LOX-1 expression compared with those treated with vehicle. However, cardiomyocytes treated with DOX showed much more expression of LOX-1 than those treated with vehicle. Immunohistochemistry study also showed that LOX-1 expression was strongly elevated in cardiomyocytes in the heart tissue of mice treated with DOX in vivo. We conclude that LOX-1 in cardiomyocytes plays the most important roles in the pathology of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. LOX-1 deletion altered the LOX-1-related signaling pathway, which led to improvements in cardiac function, myocardial inflammation, fibrosis and degenerative changes after DOX treatment.

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Yokoyama, C., Aoyama, T., Ido, T., Kakino, A., Shiraki, T., Tanaka, T., … Minatoguchi, S. (2016). Deletion of LOX-1 protects against heart failure induced by doxorubicin. PLoS ONE, 11(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154994

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