Considering the diverse toxic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON), its common occurrence in wheat-based products, and its stability during processing, DON constitutes an increasing health concern for humans and animals. In addition to the parent compound DON, human and animal exposure encompasses the acetylated fungal metabolites 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) as well as the plant-derived DON-glucoside (DON3G) and the bacterial product de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1). In the current study we used the well-established Caco-2 cell model to compare the effects of these naturally occurring forms of DON on cell viability and markers of barrier integrity, as well as on the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine chemokine CXC motif ligand (CXCL8). Results show that 3ADON is less potent in inducing adverse effects on barrier integrity when compared to DON, whereas 15ADON appears to be slightly more potent than DON. In contrast, DON3G and DOM-1 exerted no measurable adverse effects on the intestinal barrier. It was also demonstrated that galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are able to protect epithelial cells against DON and its acetylated forms, which suggests that GOS are beneficial food additives in the protection of vulnerable segments of the human population against adverse effects of DON and its derivatives.
Alizadeh, A., Braber, S., Akbari, P., Kraneveld, A., Garssen, J., & Fink-Gremmels, J. (2016). Deoxynivalenol and its modified forms: Are there major differences? Toxins, 8(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8110334