Thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ALD-deposited Zn1-xSnxOy buffer layers are fabricated and the solar cell properties are investigated for varying ALD deposition temperatures in the range from 90 °C up to 180 °C. It is found that a process window exists between 105 °C and 135 °C, where high solar cell efficiency can be achieved. At lower ALD deposition temperatures the solar cell performance is mainly limited by low fill factor and at higher temperatures by low open circuit voltage. Numerical simulations and electrical characterization are used to relate the changes in solar cell performance as a function of ALD deposition temperature to changes in the conduction band energy level of the Zn1-xSnxOy buffer layer. The Zn1-xSnxOy films contain small ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites (<10 nm), which may lead to quantum confinement effects influencing the optical band gap of the buffer layer. The ALD deposition temperature affects the size of these crystallites and it is concluded that most of the changes in the ZTO band gap occur in the conduction band level.
Lindahl, J., Keller, J., Donzel-Gargand, O., Szaniawski, P., Edoff, M., & Törndahl, T. (2016). Deposition temperature induced conduction band changes in zinc tin oxide buffer layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 144, 684–690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2015.09.048