© 2016, The Author(s). We present a framework to detect fast oscillations (FOs) in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and to perform magnetic source imaging (MSI) to determine the location and extent of their generators in the cortex. FOs can be of physiologic origin associated to sensory processing and memory consolidation. In epilepsy, FOs are of pathologic origin and biomarkers of the epileptogenic zone. Seventeen patients with focal epilepsy previously confirmed with identified FOs in scalp electroencephalography (EEG) were evaluated. To handle data deriving from large number of sensors (275 axial gradiometers) we used an automatic detector with high sensitivity. False positives were discarded by two human experts. MSI of the FOs was performed with the wavelet based maximum entropy on the mean method. We found FOs in 11/17 patients, in only one patient the channel with highest FO rate was not concordant with the epileptogenic region and might correspond to physiologic oscillations. MEG FOs rates were very low: 0.02–4.55 per minute. Compared to scalp EEG, detection sensitivity was lower, but the specificity higher in MEG. MSI of FOs showed concordance or partial concordance with proven generators of seizures and epileptiform activity in 10/11 patients. We have validated the proposed framework for the non-invasive study of FOs with MEG. The excellent overall concordance with other clinical gold standard evaluation tools indicates that MEG FOs can provide relevant information to guide implantation for intracranial EEG pre-surgical evaluation and for surgical treatment, and demonstrates the important added value of choosing appropriate FOs detection and source localization methods.
von Ellenrieder, N., Pellegrino, G., Hedrich, T., Gotman, J., Lina, J. M., Grova, C., & Kobayashi, E. (2016). Detection and Magnetic Source Imaging of Fast Oscillations (40–160 Hz) Recorded with Magnetoencephalography in Focal Epilepsy Patients. Brain Topography, 29(2), 218–231. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10548-016-0471-9