Background: levels for 61 elements were established in urine samples collected from 132 occupationally unexposed UK adults. In this study all elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, but methods were 'tailored' to the elements; in total six analytical methods were undertaken. For the first time in a UK population 95th percentile values are reported for 19 elements for which there is no available comparison. Repeat urine samples were collected from some individuals and mixed effects modelling was carried out on the data to give an estimation of variation both between individuals and within the same individual. The mixed effects modelling was undertaken on 31 of the 61 elements for which there were more than two thirds of data above the LOQ and variations of between and within individuals are reported. The analysis found that creatinine adjustment of analyte concentrations was found to be beneficial for 22 of the 31 elements and that smokers were found to exhibit significantly higher cadmium but lower boron than non-smokers. For most elements, the data compare well with other published data but higher concentrations were observed in this study for urinary lead, chromium, vanadium and tungsten.
Morton, J., Tan, E., Leese, E., & Cocker, J. (2014). Determination of 61 elements in urine samples collected from a non-occupationally exposed UK adult population. Toxicology Letters, 231(2), 179–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.08.019