Objective: Only the simultaneous analysis of periodic and nonlinear properties of heart rate fluctuations (HRF) can describe completely this complex physiological process. Up to now there is, apart from a study of our own, no systematic and correlative investigation using both parameter groups, also not in early development. Thus, we tried to describe in this manner these properties of HRF, the corresponding mean arterial pressure fluctuations (MAPF) and respiratory movements (RM) and their mutual relations in neonatal pig. Methods: In 6 term newborn piglets, periodic properties of HRF, RM, and MAPF were analyzed by spectral and coherence analysis, and deterministic-chaotic properties by calculation of correlation dimension (CD), Lyapunov exponent (LE), and construction of phase space plots. The assumption of deterministic chaotic components was supported by Theiler's test for nonlinearity, by always positive lending LEs, and by the results of a nonlinear deterministic model. These analyses were done in sleep states, general anaesthesia, hypoxic hypoxia, in ventilated state, and during cholinergic and additional β-adrenergic blockade. Results: In all experimental states, HRF and MAPF have periodic and nonlinear, very probably deterministic-chaotic properties, but in different relations. In anaesthetized piglets, periodic properties of HRF and MAPF dominate. In hypoxia the decreasing LE and CD of HRF and CD of MAPF were connected with increasing MAPF power density. Cholinergic blockade caused a decreased overall HRF and MAPF power and a decreasing LE and CD, but β-adrenergic blockade decreased a small part of power density of both in 0.02-0.08 Hz only. The results of CD, LE, Theiler's test and the low dimensional deterministic model data suggested mainly deterministic-chaotic properties in the nonlinear part of HRF and MAPF. Conclusions: Already in neonatal piglets, both periodic and nonlinear, very probably deterministic chaotic properties of HRF and MAPF exist which change both during hypoxia and cholinergic blockade. They are partly cholinergically and - to a small extent - also β-adrenergically mediated. The decrease of nonlinear complexity of HRF and MAPF during hypoxia suggests characteristic pathological change even in early development.
Zwiener, U., Hoyer, D., Bauer, R., Lüthke, B., Walter, B., Schmidt, K., … Eiselt, M. (1996). Deterministic-chaotic and periodic properties of heart rate and arterial pressure fluctuations and their mediation in piglets. Cardiovascular Research, 31(3), 455–465. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6363(95)00170-0