Development and use of a mixed-reactant fuel cell

Citations of this article
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.


Mixed-reactant fuel cells are unconventional electrochemical power sources which use a thermodynamically unstable mixture of fuel and oxidant. In the work described here a 2-phase mixture of alkaline potassium formate (liquid)/oxygen(gas) is the fuel/oxidant combination used in the “flow-by” mode with mixed-reactant fuel cells, developed in the laboratory from a 10E-4 m 2 single cell to a bipolar stack of nineteen 35E-4 m 2 cells. With Pd/Ag anode/cathode catalysts, operating at 500 kPa(abs), 80 °C the single cell with a Pd load of 0.054 kg m −2 reaches a superficial power density of 4,000 W m −2 at 10,000 A m −2 . Tests of the 19 cell stack with a Pd load of 0.036 kg m −2 at 300 kPa(abs), 60 °C give power output up to 120 W, with a corresponding volumetric power density about 400 kW m −3 . To demonstrate the fuel cell performance three nominally 100 W 19 cell stacks are wired in parallel to a 250 W electric motor to drive a modified electric scooter, with on-board fuel, oxidant and an adult passenger, for about 15 minutes at 10 km h −1 . To our knowledge this is the first time mixed-reactant fuel cells have been used alone to power a vehicle.




Forysinski, P., Oloman, C., Kazemi, S., Nickchi, T., & Usgaocar, A. (2019). Development and use of a mixed-reactant fuel cell. Journal of Power Sources, 366–376.

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free