Development of neuroendocrine prostate cancers by the Ser/Arg repetitive matrix 4-mediated RNA splicing network

Citations of this article
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.


While the use of next-generation androgen receptor pathway inhibition (ARPI) therapy has significantly increased the survival of patients with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (AdPC), several groups have reported a treatment-resistant mechanism, whereby cancer cells can become androgen receptor (AR) indifferent and gain a neuroendocrine (NE)-like phenotype. This subtype of castration-resistant prostate cancer has been termed "treatment-induced castration-resistant neuroendocrine prostate cancer" (CRPC-NE). Recent reports indicate that the overall genomic landscapes of castration-resistant tumors with AdPC phenotypes and CRPC-NE are not significantly altered. However, CRPC-NE tumors have been found to contain a NE-specific pattern throughout their epigenome and splicing transcriptome, which are significantly modified. The molecular mechanisms by which CRPC-NE develops remain unclear, but several factors have been implicated in the progression of the disease. Recently, Ser/Arg repetitive matrix 4 (SRRM4), a neuronal-specific RNA splicing factor that is upregulated in CRPC-NE tumors, has been shown to establish a CRPC-NE-unique splicing transcriptome, to induce a NE-like morphology in AdPC cells, and, most importantly, to transform AdPC cells into CRPC-NE xenografts under ARPI. Moreover, the SRRM4-targeted splicing genes are highly enriched in various neuronal processes, suggesting their roles in facilitating a CRPC-NE program. This article will address the importance of SRRM4-mediated alternative RNA splicing in reprogramming translated proteins to facilitate NE differentiation, survival, and proliferation of cells to establish CRPC-NE tumors. In addition, we will discuss the potential roles of SRRM4 in conjunction with other known pathways and factors important for CRPC-NE development, such as the AR pathway, TP53 and RB1 genes, the FOXA family of proteins, and environmental factors. This study aims to explore the multifaceted functions of SRRM4 and SRRM4-mediated splicing in driving a CRPC-NE program as a coping mechanism for therapy resistance, as well as define future SRRM4-targeted therapeutic approaches for treating CRPC-NE or mitigating its development.




Lee, A. R., Che, N., Lovnicki, J. M., & Dong, X. (2018). Development of neuroendocrine prostate cancers by the Ser/Arg repetitive matrix 4-mediated RNA splicing network. Frontiers in Oncology, 8(APR).

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free