Liposomes are widely applied in research, diagnostics, medicine and in industry. In this study we show for the first time the effect of hydrodynamic cavitation on liposome stability and compare it to the effect of well described chemical, physical and mechanical treatments. Fluorescein loaded giant 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid vesicles were treated with hydrodynamic cavitation as promising method in inactivation of biological samples. Hydrodynamic treatment was compared to various chemical, physical and mechanical stressors such as ionic strength and osmolarity agents (glucose, Na+, Ca2+, and Fe3+), free radicals, shear stresses (pipetting, vortex mixing, rotational shear stress), high pressure, electroporation, centrifugation, surface active agents (Triton X-100, ethanol), microwave irradiation, heating, freezing-thawing, ultrasound (ultrasonic bath, sonotrode). The fluorescence intensity of individual fluorescein loaded lipid vesicles was measured with confocal laser microscopy. The distribution of lipid vesicle size, vesicle fluorescence intensity, and the number of fluorescein loaded vesicles was determined before and after treatment with different stressors. The different environmental stressors were ranked in order of their relative effect on liposome fluorescein release. Of all tested chemical, physical and mechanical treatments for stability of lipid vesicles, the most detrimental effect on vesicles stability had hydrodynamic cavitation, vortex mixing with glass beads and ultrasound. Here we showed, for the first time that hydrodynamic cavitation was among the most effective physico-chemical treatments in destroying lipid vesicles. This work provides a benchmark for lipid vesicle robustness to a variety of different physico-chemical and mechanical parameters important in lipid vesicle preparation and application.
Pandur, Ž., Dogsa, I., Dular, M., & Stopar, D. (2020). Liposome destruction by hydrodynamic cavitation in comparison to chemical, physical and mechanical treatments. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.104826