A well-established, comprehensive, and simple test battery was used here to re-evaluate risk factors for cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in type 2 diabetes. One hundred and seventy-four patients with type 2 diabetes were evaluated through the methods of deep breathing and Valsalva maneuver for correlation with factors that might influence the presence and severity of CAN. The Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS) was used to grade the severity of autonomic impairment, and CAN was defined as a CASS score >=2. Results showed that nephropathy, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, uric acid, and the presence of retinopathy and metabolic syndrome significantly correlated with the CASS score. Age may not be a risk factor for diabetic CAN. However, the effects of diabetes on CAN are more prominent in younger patients than in older ones. Diabetic retinopathy is the most significant risk factor predictive of the presence of CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes.Copyright © 2016 Chih-Cheng Huang et al.
C.-C., H., J.-J., L., T.-K., L., N.-W., T., C.-R., H., S.-F., C., & C.-H., L. (2016). Diabetic Retinopathy Is Strongly Predictive of Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2016, 6090749. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6090749