When compared with maintenance dialysis, renal transplantation affords patients with end-stage renal disease better long-term survival and a better quality of life. Approximately 9% of patients will develop a major urologic complication following kidney transplantation. Ureteral complications are most common and include obstruction (intrinsic and extrinsic), urine leak and vesicoureteral reflux. Ureterovesical anastomotic strictures result from technical error or ureteral ischemia. Balloon dilation or endoureterotomy may be considered for short, low-grade strictures, but open reconstruction is associated with higher success rates. Urine leak usually occurs in the early postoperative period. Nearly 60% of patients can be successfully managed with a pelvic drain and urinary decompression (nephrostomy tube, ureteral stent, and indwelling bladder catheter). Proximal, large-volume, or leaks that persist despite urinary diversion, require open repair. Vesicoureteral reflux is common following transplantation. Patients with recurrent pyelonephritis despite antimicrobial prophylaxis require surgical treatment. Deflux injection may be considered in recipients with low-grade disease. Grade IV and V reflux are best managed with open reconstruction.
Duty, B. D., & Barry, J. M. (2015). Diagnosis and management of ureteral complications following renal transplantation. Asian Journal of Urology. Editorial Office of Asian Journal of Urology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajur.2015.08.002