The aim of this study was to investigate the dispersion and deaggregation of a model drug, salbutamol sulphate (SS), using lactose, mannitol or sorbitol as coarse and fine carriers. Binary and tertiary formulations containing micronised salbutamol sulphate (SS) and sieved (63-90 μm) coarse sugar crystals or salbutamol sulphate (SS) with a mixture of coarse and fine sugar particles were prepared. Factorial design was employed to investigate the effects of three variables, i.e. the chemical entity of the coarse sugar carrier, the chemical entity of the fine sugar and the concentration of fine sugar, on the dispersion and deaggregation of salbutamol sulphate after aerosolisation at 60 l/min via a Rotahaler® into a twin stage liquid impinger (TSI). The binary formulations containing the different sugar entities produced differences in the fine (< 6.4 μm) particle fraction (FPF) of SS in a decreasing order of mannitol > sorbitol > lactose, but failed to produce efficient dispersion of SS since the FPF was <10%. Adding fine sugar particles and increasing their concentration to the binary mixtures generally resulted in an increase in the FPF of salbutamol sulphate. The chemical nature of the fine carriers was found to play a less important role in determining respirable fraction of the drug than the coarse carriers. In conclusion, other sugars such as mannitol or sorbitol, besides lactose, may be employed as coarse and/or fine carriers for incorporation into dry powder aerosol formulations to increase FPF. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
Tee, S. K., Marriott, C., Zeng, X. M., & Martin, G. P. (2000). The use of different sugars as fine and coarse carriers for aerosolised salbutamol sulphate. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 208(1–2), 111–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-5173(00)00553-6