The mobility of interstitial atoms is closely correlated with their vibrational behaviour. Not only can the classical (hopping) activation energy be evaluated with good accuracy from the vibrational spectrum, but also low temperature tunnelling rates are strongly related to vibrations. Because of their small mass interstitial hydrogen atoms constitute an ideal probe to study this correlation over a large temperature range (0 K < T < 300 K). Hydrogen atoms vibrate mainly with localized (optical) modes but also with strongly distorted lattice vibrations (short-wavelength acoustic modes). These vibrations lead to a "dressing" of the tunnelling element. More interesting, they determine the temperature dependence of the diffusion constant (at low temperatures together with electronic terms). Using a realistic description of the vibrations as input we calculate the diffusion constants quantitatively. We present results for hydrogen in niobium and in lutetium. © 1991.
Schober, H. R., & Stoneham, A. M. (1991). Diffusion of hydrogen in transition metals. Journal of The Less-Common Metals, 172–174(PART B), 538–547. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5088(91)90174-3