The synthesis and characterization of novel N-arylhydroxylamine-based molecular wires are described for use in the site-directed covalent immobilization of whole IgG antibodies onto gold electrode surfaces. The hydroxylamine, electrochemically generated in situ from reduction of the corresponding nitrobenzene, is stable under a wide range of solution conditions and reacts selectively with carbohydrate away from the antibody-binding site to allow the development of immunosensors with maximal activity. Cyclic voltammetric responses have shown a direct correlation between the structure and length of the molecular wire and its stability and concentration at the electrode surface.
Williams, D. A., Williams, W. A. M., Rhoten, M. C., Crawley, C. D., & Ruder, S. (2011). Direct Immunosensor Design Based on the Electrochemical Reduction of 4-((4-Nitrophenyl)ethynyl)benzenethiol Monolayers. Journal of Sensors, 2011, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/609758