We present a case of a 30-year-old Polish female who presented with increasing for about 2 years spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinence. She denied any risky sexual behaviors, drug abuse, there was no history of surgery or blood transfusions. MRI of the brain showed diffuse, hyperintensive in T2, poorly defined lesions in the white matter. About 3 months later paraparesis increased and control MRI showed progression of previously described lesions. She was then diagnosed with HIV infection. There was a suspicion of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) or vacuolar myelopathy in the course of HIV infection. Antiretro- viral treatment was initiated leading, together with rehabilitation, to a progressive improve- ment of symptoms. Pathological lesions on brain MRI completely disappeared. In conclusion, HIV test should be done in every patient with neurological signs of unknown cause.
Jamroz-Wiśniewska, A., Jaworski, J., Suszek, D., Janczarek, M., Stelmasiak, Z., Rejdak, K., & Bartosik-Psujek, H. (2014). Disappearance of white matter lesions on MRI and clinical recovery after initiating antiretroviral therapy in a case of HIV infection presenting as spastic paraparesis. Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska, 48(5), 378–381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pjnns.2014.09.004