DNA damage and repair in human cancer: Molecular mechanisms and contribution to therapy-related leukemias

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Abstract

Most antitumour therapies damage tumour cell DNA either directly or indirectly. Without repair, damage can result in genetic instability and eventually cancer. The strong association between the lack of DNA damage repair, mutations and cancer is dramatically demonstrated by a number of cancer-prone human syndromes, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia and Fanconi anemia. Notably, DNA damage responses, and particularly DNA repair, influence the outcome of therapy. Because DNA repair normally excises lethal DNA lesions, it is intuitive that efficient repair will contribute to intrinsic drug resistance. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical relationship between DNA mismatch repair and drug sensitivity has been revealed by model studies in cell lines. This suggests that connections between DNA repair mechanism efficiency and tumour therapy might be more complex. Here, we review the evidence for the contribution of carcinogenic properties of several drugs as well as of alterations in specific mechanisms involved in drug-induced DNA damage response and repair in the pathogenesis of therapy-related cancers. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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Casorelli, I., Bossa, C., & Bignami, M. (2012, August). DNA damage and repair in human cancer: Molecular mechanisms and contribution to therapy-related leukemias. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9082636

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