The double neutron/proton ratio of nucleon emissions taken from two reaction systems using four isotopes of the same element, namely, the neutron/proton ratio in the neutron-rich system over that in the more symmetric system, has the advantage of reducing systematically the influence of the Coulomb force and the normally poor efficiencies of detecting low energy neutrons. The double ratio thus suffers less systematic errors. Within the IBUU04 transport model the double neutron/proton ratio is shown to have about the same sensitivity to the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy as the single neutron/proton ratio in the neutron-rich system involved. The double neutron/proton ratio is therefore more useful for further constraining the symmetry energy of neutron-rich matter. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, B. A., Chen, L. W., Yong, G. C., & Zuo, W. (2006). Double neutron/proton ratio of nucleon emissions in isotopic reaction systems as a robust probe of nuclear symmetry energy. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics, 634(4), 378–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2006.02.003