Lmo4, a transcriptional regulator, appears to be a key player in mediating the cochlear pathology in cisplatin ototoxicity, as it controls cellular responses by modulating the formation of transcriptional complexes. We provided the first evidence of in vivo nitration of Lmo4 in cisplatin ototoxicity. Our data suggested that nitration of Lmo4 and associated decrease in its cochlear expression has the potential to play a pivotal role in cisplatin ototoxicity. However, the Lmo4 interactomes that signal the downstream events in the cochlea are poorly understood. Therefore, custom-made gene arrays were employed to evaluate the modulation of known binding partners or targets of Lmo4, in Wistar rats treated with 16 mg/kg cisplatin. RT-PCR analysis, 3 days post cisplatin treatment, indicated that cisplatin induced up/down regulation of multiple cochlear genes associated with Lmo4 signaling. The cochlear expression of Esr1 was significantly up-regulated by cisplatin treatment, while the expression of Stat3 was down-regulated. Cotreatment with Trolox, an otoprotective antioxidant, attenuated the cisplatin-induced modulation of 5 genes in the cochlea. Consistent with the changes observed at the gene level, immunoblots with anti-Stat3 indicated that cisplatin-induced decrease in cochlear protein levels were attenuated by Trolox co-treatment. These results suggest that cisplatin-induced decreases in the cochlear Lmo4 upon nitration, and associated modulation in the cochlear expression of its binding partners Esr1 and Jak1, probably facilitates the repression of Stat3, a downstream target of Lmo4 implicated in drug mediated apoptosis. Collectively, these findings provide insights on Lmo4 downstream events and indicate a potential role of Jak/Stat transcriptional machinery in relaying the Lmo4 protein signaling in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.
Jamesdaniel, S. (2014). Downstream targets of Lmo4 are modulated by cisplatin in the inner ear of wistar rats. PLoS ONE, 9(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115263