Background: It remains to be elucidated whether dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor can ameliorate cardiovascular injury in salt-sensitive hypertension. The present study was undertaken to test our hypothesis that linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, administration initiated after onset of hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy can ameliorate cardiovascular injury in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats (DS rats). Methods: High-salt loaded DS rats with established hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were divided into two groups, and were orally given (1) vehicle or (2) linagliptin (3 mg/kg/day) once a day for 4 weeks, and cardiovascular protective effects of linagliptin in DS rats were evaluated. Results: Linagliptin did not significantly affect blood pressure and blood glucose levels in DS rats. Linagliptin significantly lessened cardiac hypertrophy in DS rats, as estimated by cardiac weight and echocardiographic parameters. Linagliptin significantly ameliorated cardiac fibrosis, cardiac macrophage infiltration, and coronary arterial remodeling in DS rats. Furthermore, linagliptin significantly mitigated the impairment of vascular function in DS rats, as shown by the improvement of acetylcholine-induced or sodium nitroprusside-induced vascular relaxation by linagliptin. These cardiovascular protective effects of linagliptin were associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase subunits, p67phox and p22phox, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Conclusions: Our results provided the experimental evidence that linagliptin treatment initiated after the appearance of hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy protected against cardiovascular injury induced by salt-sensitive hypertension, independently of blood pressure and blood glucose. These beneficial effects of linagliptin seem to be attributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and ACE.
Koibuchi, N., Hasegawa, Y., Katayama, T., Toyama, K., Uekawa, K., Sueta, D., … Kim-mitsuyama, S. (2014). DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin ameliorates cardiovascular injury in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats independently of blood glucose and blood pressure. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-014-0157-0