Previous findings have shown that additional haptic displays can support the driver in critical situations. But yet it is not sufficiently clear, how much information can be transmitted reliably by tactile stimuli respectively which kind of patterns can be perceived properly. Furthermore, it has to be investigated, which patterns are suitable for initiating take-over requests to intuitively meet the driver's evolutionary developed experience and expectations. The present work is meant to show first results regarding recognition, adequacy and workload of tactile patterns presented by a vibrotactile seat matrix including 47 vibrators in the driver's seat. Different patterns as well as different forms of information encoding (simultaneous, sequential, cumulative and wavelike) were presented to the subjects. Within a simulated driving scenario of several take-over requests also the workload of these situations including the vibrotactile display was enquired by NASA-TLX and an additional questionnaire. The findings reveal which of the used basic patterns and forms of encoding are best recognizable and suitable for presenting the specific information of a take-over request. Furthermore, it can be said, that workload stayed on a comfortable level although even more take-over procedures per time were conducted than are estimated to occur in reality.
Schwalk, M., Kalogerakis, N., & Maier, T. (2015). Driver Support by a Vibrotactile Seat Matrix – Recognition, Adequacy and Workload of Tactile Patterns in Take-over Scenarios During Automated Driving. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 2466–2473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.507