With the presentation of nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSID) criteria in the fifth version of the Statistical and Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), empirical studies have emerged where the criteria have been operationalized on samples of children, adolescents and young adults. Since NSSID is a condition in need of further study, empirical data are crucial at this stage in order to gather information on the suggested criteria concerning prevalence rates, characteristics, clinical correlates and potential independence of the disorder. A review was conducted based on published peer-reviewed empirical studies of the DSM-5 NSSID criteria up to May 16, 2015. When the DSM-5 criteria were operationalized on both clinical and community samples, a sample of individuals was identified that had more general psychopathology and impairment than clinical controls as well as those with NSSI not meeting criteria for NSSID. Across all studies interpersonal difficulties or negative state preceding NSSI was highly endorsed by participants, while the distress or impairment criterion tended to have a lower endorsement. Results showed preliminary support for a distinct and independent NSSID diagnosis, but additional empirical data are needed with direct and structured assessment of the final DSM-5 criteria in order to reliably assess and validate a potential diagnosis of NSSID.
Zetterqvist, M. (2015). The DSM-5 diagnosis of nonsuicidal self-injury disorder: A review of the empirical literature. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-015-0062-7