The prevalence of smoking was studied using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 176 smokers. The total studied population with family and co-workers were 13289. The number of smokers among studied population was 11.7%. The rate of smoking among male subjects was 17.2% and in female 2.5%. All values of PFTs in smokers were significantly lower (p<0.001) and respiratory symptoms higher than in non smokers (p<0.05 for cough and p<0.001 for wheeze and tightness). There were significant negative correlations between smoking duration and rate with values of PFT (p<0.05-p<0.001). In this study the prevalence of smoking in population of Mashhad city was shown. The prevalence of smoking was higher among male than females. Smoking leads to increased respiratory symptoms and reduction of PFTs values.
Boskabady, M. H., Mahmoodinia, M., Boskabady, M., & Heydari, G. R. (2011). Pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms among smokers in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran). Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia, 17(5), 199–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rppneu.2011.05.001