We estimate the marginal benefits of increasing lifesavers lifeguards for beach users in Australia the United States. Visits income, education, age, distance from a patrol willingness to swim on an unpatrolled beach explain willingness to pay but rivalry does not snob bandwagon effects prevail. By comparing benefits with costs the levels of lifeguards lifesavers in Australia were found to be underprovided consistent with shared good theory. Increasing services provides greater net benefits to users but replacing volunteer lifesavers with paid lifeguards may not because volunteering brings broader social benefits.
Blackwell, B. D., & Tisdell, C. A. (2010). The Marginal Values of Lifesavers and Lifeguards to Beach Users in Australia and the United States. Economic Analysis and Policy, 40(2), 209–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0313-5926(10)50025-0