This paper describes experimental and numerical modelling results from an investigation into the flammability profiles associated with high pressure hydrogen jets released in close proximity to surfaces. This work was performed under a Transnational Access Agreement activity funded by the European Research Infrastructure project, H2FC. The experimental programme involved ignited and unignited releases of hydrogen at pressures of 150 and 425 barg through nozzles of 1.06 and 0.64 mm respectively. The proximity of the release to a ceiling or the ground was varied and the results compared with an equivalent free-jet test. During the unignited experiments concentration profiles were measured using hydrogen sensors. During the ignited releases thermal radiation was measured using radiometers and an infra-red camera. The results show that the flammable volume and flame length increase when the release is in close proximity to a surface. The increases are quantified and the safety implications discussed. Selected experiments were modelled using the CFD model FLACS for validation purposes and a comparison of the results is also included in this paper. Similarly to experiments, the CFD results show an increase in flammable volume when the release is close to a surface. The unstable atmospheric conditions during the experiments are shown to have a significant impact on the results.
Hall, J. E., Hooker, P., O’Sullivan, L., Angers, B., Hourri, A., & Bernard, P. (2017). Flammability profiles associated with high-pressure hydrogen jets released in close proximity to surfaces. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(11), 7413–7421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.05.113