The elaboration of porous ceramic membranes using low-cost materials has attracted much interest. Indeed, the choice of suitable raw materials (including additives or binders) is critical to the membrane's performance. However, with the growing need for more cost-effective resources with superior performance, many studies have been conducted for selecting suitable cheap raw materials for the intended use and then adjusting the overall characteristics, and therefore allowing the ceramic membranes to be tailored to suit a wide range of industrial applications. Many attempts have been made by researchers to produce porous ceramic membranes from specific materials, but their industrial applications remain very limited because of the high cost of the raw materials used. The use of ceramic materials for producing membranes has many advantages, such as high mechanical and chemical stability and excellent thermal resistivity. The evaluation of membrane performances, essentially their permeability and rejection, can assert their use in many industrial fields, namely beverage and food, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, petrochemical industries as well as water treatment and several other environmental problems. This article aims to make a thorough review of the different processes used in the synthesis of ceramic membranes using inexpensive raw materials as well as their intrinsic characteristics and industrial applications in several sensitive fields taking into account both economic and environmental aspects.
Issaoui, M., & Limousy, L. (2019, February 1). Low-cost ceramic membranes: Synthesis, classifications, and applications. Comptes Rendus Chimie. Elsevier Masson SAS. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2018.09.014