Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has long been the gold standard treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Recently, there has been an emergence of novel immunotherapeutic agents, which have shown promise in the treatment of urothelial cell carcinoma. These agents aim to augment, modify, or enhance the immune response. Such strategies include recombinant BCG, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, gene therapy, and adoptive T-cell therapy. Here, we review the emerging immunotherapeutics in the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.
Maruf, M., Brancato, S. J., & Agarwal, P. K. (2016, June 1). Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: a primer on immunotherapy. Cancer Biology and Medicine. Cancer Biology and Medicine. https://doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2016.0020