Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti)

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The Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect is an uncommon type of ventricular septal defect characterised in humans by a traditionally perimembranous ventricular septal defect, anterior deviation (cranioventral deviation in small animal patients) of the muscular outlet septum causing malalignment relative to the remainder of the muscular septum, and overriding of the aortic valve. This anomaly is reported infrequently in human patients and was identified in a 45-day-old Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, with signs of poor growth and a cardiac murmur. This case report describes the findings in this penguin and summarises the anatomy and classification of this cardiac anomaly. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first report of an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a veterinary patient.




Laughlin, D. S., Ialeggio, D. M., Trupkiewicz, J. G., & Sleeper, M. M. (2016). Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti). Journal of Veterinary Cardiology, 18(3), 290–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvc.2016.04.001

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