The problem of packing items within bounded regions in the Euclidean space has multiple applications in a variety of areas, such as, Physics, Chemistry, and Engineering. Problems of this type exhibit various levels of complexity. Nonlinear programming formulations and methods had been successfully applied to a wide range of packing problems. In this review paper, a brief description of the state-of-the-art and an illustrated overview of packing nonlinear programming techniques and applications will be presented.
Birgin, E. G. (2016). Applications of Nonlinear Programming to Packing Problems (pp. 31–39). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-55342-7_3