In management studies, the ecosystem metaphor is often utilized without<br />clear definition and, thereby, several partially overlapping concepts<br />such as industrial, business, service, innovation, and knowledge<br />ecosystems have been introduced. The purpose of this conceptual article<br />is to go beyond the confusion to define what is meant by different<br />concepts regarding an ecosystem and especially describe the<br />relationships between the three different ecosystem types: business,<br />innovation, and knowledge ecosystems. The article contributes to the<br />literature by describing how the ecosystem types differ in terms of<br />their outcomes, interactions, logic of action, and actor roles. The<br />results show that the three ecosystem types are interconnected from the<br />viewpoint of the ecosystem actor. For practitioners, the article sheds<br />more light on how the rules of the game (i.e., the logic of action)<br />differ in the different types of ecosystems and demonstrates that<br />different models are needed in order to operate in different ecosystems.
Valkokari, K. (2015). Business, Innovation, and Knowledge Ecosystems: How They Differ and How to Survive and Thrive within Them. Technology Innovation Management Review, 5(8), 17–24. https://doi.org/10.22215/timreview919