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Background: Intratumoral immune infiltrates have manifested a robust prognostic signature in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesized that a novel tissue-related immune signature (TRIS) could improve the prediction of postoperative survival for patients diagnosed with early/intermediate HCC. Methods: Twenty-eight immune features were immunohistochemically examined on 352 HCC specimens. The LASSO Cox regression model was used to construct a five-feature-based TRIS. The univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were performed. Based on independent predictors, the immune-clinical prognostic index (ICPI) was established. Performance assessment was measured with C-index and compared with seven traditional staging systems. The independent validation cohort (n = 393) was included to validate the model. Results: By using the LASSO method, the TRIS were constructed on the basis of five immune features, CD3intratumoral (T), CD27T, CD68peritumoral (P), CD103T, and PD1T. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that the TRIS was an independent prognostic predictor. In the training cohort, γ-glutamyl transferase, tumor diameter, tumor differentiation, and TRIS were incorporated into the ICPI. The ICPI presented satisfactory discrimination ability, with C-index values of 0.691 and 0.686 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Compared with seven conventional staging systems (C-index, training cohort, 0.548-0.597; validation cohort, 0.519-0.610), the ICPI exhibited better performance for early/intermediate-stage HCCs. Further, the patients were categorized into three subgroups with X-tile software, and the stratified ICPI presented a superior corrected Akaike information criterion and homogeneity in both cohorts. Conclusions: Our ICPI was a useful and reliable prognostic tool which may offer good individualized prediction capability for HCC patients with early/intermediate stage.
Tian, M. X., Liu, W. R., Wang, H., Zhou, Y. F., Jin, L., Jiang, X. F., … Shi, Y. H. (2019). Tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes signature predicts survival in patients with early/intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma. BMC Medicine, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1341-6