The Nile Delta, an area of about 22,000 km2, accounts for two thirds of Egypt's agriculture. In the late Pliocene, the delta started to advance across a marine embayment and developed, especially in the Pleistocene, through major sea-level changes associated with glacial periods. The Nile Delta area is now the major oil and gas-producing area of Egypt. Chemical industry located in the Nile Delta is the main source of hazardous waste. Water pollution in the Nile branches as well as its lakes is caused by agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and urban and industrial effluents.
Hamza, W. (2009). The Nile Delta (pp. 75–94). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9726-3_5