Cartagena's Water Distribution System serves almost one million inhabitants. The raw water that feeds the system is collected 40 km from the city, and it is transported by series of pumping stations to El Bosque Water Treatment Plant (WTP). From this place, the water is conveyed to 10 District Meter Areas (DMAs) working under the scheme 24/7 (24 hours, 7 days a week). The flat topography with isolated elevations has demanded the construction of pressure regulating systems. In some cases, these systems increase the pressure, but in other cases the pressure regulating systems reduce it. The company responsible of Cartagena's WDS operation is Aguas de Cartagena SA. E.S.P, which has made significant efforts to reduce the level of non-revenue water.
Angulo, F., Urueta, E., Valverde, G., & Paternina, O. (2017). Cartagena’s Water Distribution System. In Procedia Engineering (Vol. 186, pp. 28–35). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.03.204