Modern digital hardware and software designs are increasingly complex but are themselves only idealizations of a real system that is instantiated in, and interacts with, an analog physical environment. Insights from physics, formal methods, and complex systems theory can aid in extending reliability and security measures from pure digital computation (itself a challenging problem) to the broader cyber-physical and out-of-nominal arena. Example applications to design and analysis of high-consequence controllers and extreme-scale scientific computing illustrate the interplay of physics and computation. In particular, we discuss the limitations of digital models in an analog world, the modeling and verification of out-of-nominal logic, and the resilience of computational physics simulation. A common theme is that robustness to failures and attacks is fostered by cyber-physical system designs that are constrained to possess inherent stability or smoothness. This chapter contains excerpts from previous publications by the authors.
Mayo, J. R., Armstrong, R. C., Hulette, G. C., Salloum, M., & Smith, A. M. (2018). Robust digital computation in the physical world. In Cyber-Physical Systems Security (pp. 1–21). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98935-8_1