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In recognition of problems associated with existing non-constraints maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms such as slow convergence speed and losses due to oscillations at steady-state, this paper presents a constraints-based extremum seeking control CB-ESC for thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems. This work also describes the practical implementation of a CB-ESC for MPPT using an in-house test rig. The experimental set-up utilises dSPACE for hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation. Perturb and observe (P&O) and standard extremum seeking control (ESC) algorithms serve as benchmark controllers. Compared to the benchmark controllers, CB-ESC has achieved better performance in both transients and steady-state. Limitations and challenges of practical implementations of the CB-ESC is explained in this paper. MATLAB/Simulink software is used for the development of control strategies.
Patel, S., Maganga, O., Fofana, A., & Bates, I. (2017). Hardware Implementation of a Constraints-Based ESC for Thermoelectric Generators. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 50(1), 6534–6539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.600