This chapter provides an overview of environmental restoration efforts involving the application of NZVI. The chapter focuses on the novel application techniques aimed at improving the delivery, characterization, and effectiveness of NZVI, drawing on over two decades of peer-reviewed literature. Stressing a base of knowledge through detailed site characterization toward a site conceptual model, this chapter discusses delivery techniques, options for NZVI formulation, and challenges associated with different site conditions. NZVI particle types and injection characteristics are covered along with field-ready analytical capabilities for NZVI detection and characterization. The chapter also highlights cases where remote sensing and modeling have been used to better understand NZVI delivery. Lessons learned from past field studies are discussed and will become increasingly relevant as the industry gears up for a renaissance of NZVI use. Growing confidence in the use cases for stabilized NZVI, the synergistic application of ZVI + bioremediation and technological advances such as sulfidation will catch the eye of practitioners and site managers into the future and lead to more innovation.
Kocur, C. M., Sleep, B. E., & O’Carroll, D. M. (2019). Moving into the third decade of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) development: Best practices for field implementation. In Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Particles for Environmental Restoration: From Fundamental Science to Field Scale Engineering Applications (pp. 293–333). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95340-3_7