When different mathematical models are used for software analysis and development it is important to understand their relationships. When the models are truly mathematical, and when the aspects of reality that they seek to model are common, it may be possible to express their relationships in precise mathematical terms. This paper studies three mathematical models: The sketch data model, the relational data model, and the data specifications of Piessens and Steegmans, and determines their relationships mathematically and in detail. The constructions presented here answer reasonably long-standing theoretical questions, and offer techniques that promise to be practically useful in integrating data models. © 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
Johnson, M., & Rosebrugh, R. (2002). Sketch data models, relational schema and data specifications. In Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science (Vol. 61, pp. 51–63). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1571-0661(04)00305-6