Additive manufacturing has revolutionized the building of materials, and 3D-printing has become a useful tool for complex electrode assembly for batteries and supercapacitors. The field initially grew from extrusion-based methods and quickly evolved to photopolymerization printing, while supercapacitor technologies less sensitive to solvents more often involved material jetting processes. The need to develop higher-resolution multimaterial printers is borne out in the performance data of recent 3D printed electrochemical energy storage devices. Underpinning every part of a 3D-printable battery are the printing method and the feed material. These influence material purity, printing fidelity, accuracy, complexity, and the ability to form conductive, ceramic, or solvent-stable materials. The future of 3D-printable batteries and electrochemical energy storage devices is reliant on materials and printing methods that are co-operatively informed by device design. Herein, the material and method requirements in 3D-printable batteries and supercapacitors are addressed and requirements for the future of the field are outlined by linking existing performance limitations to requirements for printable energy-storage materials, casings, and direct printing of electrodes and electrolytes. A guide to materials and printing method choice best suited for alternative-form-factor energy-storage devices to be designed and integrated into the devices they power is thus provided.
Egorov, V., Gulzar, U., Zhang, Y., Breen, S., & O’Dwyer, C. (2020, July 1). Evolution of 3D Printing Methods and Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage. Advanced Materials. Wiley-VCH Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202000556